G. Pomberger, W. Pree, H. Sikora: Construction Techniques of Graphic, Direct-Manipulation User Interfaces, Proceedings of the EUROGRAPHICS '91, Wien, 2.-6. September 1991.


This paper deals with human-computer interaction in several ways. On the one hand it presents the roots of interactive, graphic user interfaces and how such interfaces are implemented on the abstraction level of programming languages: The construction of graphic, direct-manipulation interfaces with conventional programming techniques is compared with an object-oriented approach based on powerful class libraries (called user interface frameworks). Although application frameworks substantially ease the building of highly interactive applications the abstraction level is considered to be too low to support prototyping such interfaces in a comfortable way. Hence wo portray DICE (Dynamic Interface Creation Environment), a tool for prototyping graphic user interfaces implemented itself in an object-oriented manner. In particular this paper discusses the question of how dynamic behavior can be added to a user interface prototype. It also presents a useful and powerful way to combine conventionally developed and object-oriented software systems.